Less respectfully, people could be addressed with Mr./Mrs./Ms. Moreover, the øy diphthong changed into a long, close ø, as in the Old Norse word for "island". Learn how and when to remove this template message, "How the Swedish language lost its formality", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Du-reformen&oldid=1000511868, Articles needing additional references from September 2012, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, If two persons were somewhat acquainted and not too far apart in rank and age, they could then drop the name and use the, Below that on the social scale, both among peers and from above, was the, Simple folks of venerable age could be properly addressed, A master could address his servant, and a farmer his farmhand, by, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 11:43. That usage was most widespread in the early days of universal du address; it has become slightly more common again simultaneously with the partial Ni revival. The national managing authority for the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) in Sweden is the Swedish Migration Agency. Only slightly less accepted is the use of Christian name also when addressing an acquaintance or colleague (Daniel, Pia, etc.). [9], Early Old Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex case structure and also retained the original Germanic three-gender system. '), often using the passive voice. One or several examples from each group are given here. [36], Swedish is the official main language of Sweden. In Sweden, it has long been used in local and state government, and most of the educational system, but remained only a de facto primary language with no official status in law until 2009. All Swedish dialects with the exception of the highly diverging forms of speech in Dalarna, Norrbotten and, to some extent, Gotland can be considered to be part of a common, mutually intelligible dialect continuum. After his death in 1946, Tage Erlander became prime minister, a post that he held until his resignation in 1969. Primary schools are run by the municipalities, as are the secondary schools. Swedish is also notable for the voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative, a highly variable consonant phoneme. The sections of Language Characteristics , Key Words , and Additional Resources below are designed to help you find the words you need. In 1786 the Swedish Academy (Svenska Academien) commissioned Carl Gustaf Leopold to create rules for modern Swedish with uniform spelling. To start at the top The Swedish way is to start at the very top — firstly, to make the language and structure used in legislation as clear as possible and secondly, to influence the government authorities at all levels, central, regional and local, to start their own plain language activities. Adjectives precede the noun they modify. [58], The vocabulary of Swedish is mainly Germanic, either through common Germanic heritage or through loans from German, Middle Low German, and to some extent, English. Language and Spelling Reforms Swedish is a North Germanic language closely related to Danish, Icelandic and Norwegian. Though the reform was not an act of any centralized political decree, but rather the result of sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years, from the late 1960s to early 1970s. New linguistic practices in multilingual urban contexts in fiction and hip-hop culture and rap lyrics have been introduced that goes beyond traditional socio-linguistic domains. Finland Swedish has undergone a similar development, but slower and slightly less due to influence of the somewhat more conservative usage in Finnish. The percentage of Swedish speakers in Finland has steadily decreased since then. Sweden - Sweden - The welfare state: The coalition government that was formed in 1939 was replaced shortly after the end of the war in 1945 by a Social Democratic government under the leadership of Per Albin Hansson. How many people speak Swedish? The phrase hvarken af silfver eller rödt guld … It depended on the authors and their background. This was published in 1801 as Afhandling om Svenska stafsättet. The start date is usually set to 1225 since this is the year that Västgötalagen ("the Västgöta Law") is believed to have been compiled for the first time. [53], Adjectives are inflected in two declensions – indefinite and definite – and they must match the noun they modify in gender and number. [57] Verb-second (inverted) word order is also used for questions. [25], Swedish is the sole official national language of Sweden, and one of two in Finland (alongside Finnish). Its primary instruments are the glossary Svenska Akademiens ordlista (SAOL, currently in its 14th edition) and the dictionary Svenska Akademiens Ordbok, in addition to various books on grammar, spelling and manuals of style. Swedish: The last major reform of Swedish orthography occurred in 1906. One group of verbs (the ones ending in -er in present tense) has a special imperative form (generally the verb stem), but with most verbs the imperative is identical to the infinitive form. In modern Swedish, it has become an enclitic -s, which attaches to the end of the noun phrase, rather than the noun itself. This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read stain and the later stin. It is called rikssvenska or standardsvenska ("Standard Swedish") in Sweden. niveau, "level"), fåtölj (fr. [53], Where other languages may use grammatical cases, Swedish uses numerous prepositions, similar to those found in English. They are generally separated into six major groups, with common characteristics of prosody, grammar and vocabulary. [30] Over 3 million people speak Swedish as a second language, with about 2,410,000 of those in Finland. Two persons who have paid the same amount in contributions and who retire at the same time and at the same age should be entitled to the same benefit. Swedish words for reforming include reformera, omvända sig and ombilda. T-V distinction.) What does the removal of the Swedish derogation mean? By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish. Then, in a process dubbed the "du reform", the system rapidly broke down and the informal du became the accepted way of addressing any one person except royalty. Since an educational reform in the 1970s, both Swedish and Finnish have been compulsory school subjects in Mainland Finland, and both were until 2004 mandatory in … The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of Low German-speaking immigrants. /r/ has a guttural or "French R" pronunciation in the South Swedish dialects; consequently, these dialects lack retroflex consonants. [48], There are 18 consonant phonemes, two of which, /ɧ/ and /r/, vary considerably in pronunciation depending on the dialect and social status of the speaker. Norwegian. [71], The samples linked below have been taken from SweDia, a research project on Swedish modern dialects available for download (though with information in Swedish only), with many more samples from 100 different dialects with recordings from four different speakers: older female, older male, younger female and younger male. Du-reformen (Swedish pronunciation: [ˈdʉ̂ːrɛˌfɔrmɛn], "the thou-reform") was the process of popularization of the second-person singular pronoun du as a universal form of address in Sweden that took place in the late 1960s. Despite the availability of all these characters in the Swedish national top-level Internet domain and other such domains, Swedish sites are frequently labelled using a and o, based on visual similarity, though Swedish domains could be registered using the characters å, ä, and ö from 2003. Swedish nouns and adjectives are declined in genders as well as number. No dialects, no matter how remote or obscure, remained unchanged or undisturbed by a minimum of influences from surrounding dialects or the standard language, especially not from the late 19th century onwards with the advent of mass media and advanced forms of transport. Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the Swedish Academy (established 1786) is arguably the most influential. Purism aligns the language with a form which is deemed 'purer'. [10], A transitional change of the Latin script in the Nordic countries was to spell the letter combination "ae" as æ – and sometimes as a' – though it varied between persons and regions. The growth of a public school system also led to the evolution of so-called boksvenska (literally, "book Swedish"), especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts. However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: Insular Scandinavian (Faroese and Icelandic), and Continental Scandinavian (Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish), based on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian (particularly Danish) on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic. [6], Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska) is the term used for the medieval Swedish language. These varieties could alternatively be classified as sociolects, because the immigrant dialects share common traits independent of their geographical spread or the native country of the speakers. Swedish (Swedish: [ˈsvɛ̂nːska] (listen)) is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language) and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns and certain numerals were inflected in four cases; besides the extant nominative, there were also the genitive (later possessive), dative and accusative. It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were written. The use of du ( cognate with English thou, French tu, and German du) replaced an intricate former system where people chiefly addressed each other in third person, with or without a preceding … For one thing, you still had to address the person you talked with directly from time to time in the conversation, otherwise you would really have sounded impolite—and over time, it became de rigueur to do so more and more often, until it was a system with both longish titles used instead of personal pronouns and impersonal circumlocutions; and for another, the impersonal constructions soon acquired their own gradations, to be observant upon—e.g., that in the second example above being perceived as more and more rustic, ending up rude. The masculine and feminine genders were later merged into a common gender with the definite suffix -en and the definite article den, in contrast with the neuter gender equivalents -et and det. The reform was called ”stafningsukasen” and it provoked a large number of protests in many circles. The prosody features both stress and in most dialects tonal qualities. [21] With the exception of plural forms of verbs and a slightly different syntax, particularly in the written language, the language was the same as the Swedish of today. Sweden - Sweden - Education: The education system is, with few exceptions, public and open to all without fees. Language and education for adults Improvements in Swedish language teaching All new arrivals in Sweden are entitled to basic education in the Swedish language, but the standards of teaching vary considerably. The main translators were Laurentius Andreæ and the brothers Laurentius and Olaus Petri. They can double as demonstrative pronouns or demonstrative determiners when used with adverbs such as här ("here") or där ("there") to form den/det här (can also be "denna/detta") ("this"), de här (can also be "dessa") ("these"), den/det där ("that"), and de där ("those"). The velar fricative [ɣ] was also transformed into the corresponding plosive [ɡ]. Åland county is an autonomous region of Finland. The New Testament was published in 1526, followed by a full Bible translation in 1541, usually referred to as the Gustav Vasa Bible, a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until 1917. "You have lost your word and your paper note, So you sit on the porch of the grocer anew. [41][42], The Swedish Language Council (Språkrådet) is the regulator of Swedish in Sweden but does not attempt to enforce control of the language, as for instance the Académie française does for French. It was a part of the Victorian dress reform, and worked to reform women's dress toward a more healthy and comfortable one, including abolishing the corset. The language used for addressing members of the Swedish Royal Family also changed, but third person addressing still dominates in official settings. It is considered to be the ending point of the Swedish … [45], From 1918 to 1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. [5], An early change that separated Runic Danish from the other dialects of Old East Norse was the change of the diphthong æi to the monophthong é, as in stæinn to sténn "stone". [29], According to a rough estimation, as of 2010 there were up to 300,000 Swedish-speakers living outside Sweden and Finland. [60], As with many Germanic languages, new words can be formed by compounding, e. g., nouns like nagellackborttagningsmedel ("nail polish remover") or verbs like smyglyssna ("to eavesdrop"). Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a dialect continuum of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of Bohuslän, Dalsland, western Värmland, western Dalarna, Härjedalen, Jämtland, and Scania, could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages.[4]. Var går gränsen mellan olika dialekter? According to the 2000 United States Census, some 67,000 people over the age of five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on the degree of language proficiency. Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration, general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. [8] Important outside influences during this time came with the firm establishment of the Christian church and various monastic orders, introducing many Greek and Latin loanwords. 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